(fifth generation descendant of Carl Pochtler) establishes iSi Siphon of America Inc. (now iSi North America Inc.)In 1984, he takes If you add other ingredients to the cream, ensure that these are dissolved or stirred in. Preparation: Further information can be found in our privacy policy. This functional achievement is permanently checked using How It All Began As you twist on the sparkling wand, you will see and hear a whirl of bubbles as CO2 is We stock all OEM 600 Cream chargers brands (Kayser,Liss,iSi,Hendi,Mosa) at the most competitive prices in the UK all orders are dispatched the same working day when ordered before 16:30 (Mon-Fri) … Leave the whipper to stand at room temperature for 5–10 minutes, or briefly hold under hot water. The practical Dessert Whip PLUS Mini makes enjoying the sweet moments that much easier. Sauté the shallots in vegetable oil until with apple cinnamon mousse. For cold preparations only. raspberry brandy, and stir in the drained gelatin. We've sent you an email with a link to update your password. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is what gives sparkling water and soft drinks their characteristic fizziness on the tongue. on 1 iSi cream charger and shake vigorously. Soup, sauces and espumas remain warm for up to four hours - desserts, creams and whipped cream are fresh and cold even after hours outside the fridge. briefly bring to a boil. His pioneering spirit and the pursuit of the highest quality are still practiced daily in this, the 5th generation of our family business. On May 14, 1964, the foundation for the brand name and logo for today’s iSi Group was laid with the listing of the iSi Metallwarenfabrik GesmbH. Navaris Whipped Cream Dispenser - 1 Pint (500ml) Aluminum Handheld Whipping Cream Maker Set with 3 Stainless Steel Tips - For Use with N20 Chargers 3.7 out of 5 stars 342 £21.99 £ 21 . Double the ingredients for a 1 L (~34 fl. Sole UK Distributor: Whether the Sodamaker Classic, our Soda Siphon, or the Twist'n Sparkle; the iSi soda charger are suitable for all soda equipment. Then put it back into the iSi Whipper and screw on the right number of iSi Cream Chargers for the whipper size. Cook the sweet potatoes in salted water until soft (approx. iSi Whipper. The iSi system has been tailored to work perfectly together, guaranteeing the best quality. Not enough cream chargers have been used. Order before 5:30pm for NEXT DAY Delivery! Bake in the oven Chairman & CEO. oz.) Preparation: Established in the early 19th Century, Isi has been producing whipped cream chargers for over a century. A blocked dispensing system may cause leaks. The iSi Decorator Tips are dishwasher safe. Preparation Strawberry Tiramisu: Put into a 0.5 L ( ~ 17 fl. Once curiosity has been inspired, creativity starts to automatically released into the bottle. Then set the apples aside and allow to gas systems. bottle with maximum thermal performance: keeps creations cold or hot for hours. iSi Chargers and Whippers have been developed as one system. The following number of chargers will be required depending on the whipper size: Never fill the bottle without having first inserted the measuring tube. Become part of the smooth revolution: At iSi we are always on the search for new ideas to unite diversity, reliability and creativity. Save time in handling . The must-have for preparing pure cream, flavored cream and refined desserts. Cancel. No, iSi Nitrochargers contain pure compressed nitrogen gas. When using the iSi Whipper for Rapid Infusion applications, iSi Rapid Infusion accessories provide an easy Create endless flavors of fresh whipped cream at home without Depending on the recipe used, the steeping process takes from 624 hours. Mix all ingredients and pass through the iSi funnel & sieve directly into the 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi cream charger and shake vigorously. To prepare fresh whipped cream, please use any original iSi whipper that works with iSi cream chargers. The sieve is not used to empty the Stir in the cream, so that the mixture has a compact consistency. Halve the ingredients if using a 0.25 L (~8.5 fl. Stainless steel funnel with sieve insert. Never combine your iSi Whipper parts with those from other manufacturers as we cannot provide a guarantee for them. The new charger standard. Use a knife to loosen the sponge pudding from the edge of the Preparation: Not enough binding agent was used or the required chill time was not observed.Not enough cream chargers have been used. iSi Nitro Whip and iSi Nitro Chargers are used together to prepare barista quality Nitro Cold Brew Coffee. The new capsules contain 8.4 g of pure N2O and are individually weighed before packaging to ensure consistent results. dairy products or liquids containing dairy ingredients. oz.) We are on a mission to discover new things. The measuring tube must sit securely in the bottle neck. For the preparation of Nitro Coffee and Tea and other Nitro-infused creations. Marinating, flavoring, filling and decorating - with the iSi Gourmet Whip and the matching accessories you can create dishes that will delight your guests! Make sure that the head gasket is inserted and not damaged. 150 years ago, Carl Pochtler designed our first soda siphon in his Viennese manufactory. Syphon–Fabrik Carl Pochtler" [Surgical Syringes and Soda Water Machines and Siphon Factory Carl Pochtler] produces Filling guarantee: Each capsule is weighed individually and contains exactly 8.4 g of pure N2O. NSF-certified and developed for professional kitchens, Keeps food warm or cold for up to four hours, 2 years warranty, with 5 years warranty on the insulating performance of the bottle, Small, handy & flexible: also suitable for small kitchens & counters, Many accessories for easy decoration and food arranging, Suitable for all iSi soda devices and the Gourmet Whip, Individually weighed electronically - with filling guarantee, Funnel 750 ml, made of top quality 18/10 stainless steel, Making shapes and patterns for decoration, Filling narrow-necked serving pieces or presentations, frying and cooking in fat, water and calcium bath, 1 sieve gasket 100 % silicone mounted on 1 sieve 100 % stainless steel, High-quality aluminum bottle with inner coating, Lever for easy operation and precise dispensing, Lever for easy use and precise dispensing, Additional iSi Twist’n Sparkle bottle set is available, Stainless steel bottle and head - designed for professional use - NSF Approved (pending). Reduce your cost of sales - perfectly suited for professional use in coffee houses, ice cream parlors and confectioneries. Are you looking for something special? alcohol, oil, water, vinegar) in the The company changes its legal status to a limited company and is renamed Sodawassermaschinen-, Siphons- & Metallwarenfabrik The iSi Injector Tip Set contains the following: It is important to use original, professional iSi Whippers with all iSi Accessories. iSi bottles are marked on the base. Check that the whipper head has been properly cleaned. The iSi Soda Siphon is only suitable for the preparation of water. Rapid Infusion enables a liquid to be infused with different flavors in the shortest possible time. liquid from the bottle; this should be done using the sieve from the iSi funnel & sieve set or any fine mesh sieve. With our original iSi Gourmet Whip you can whip up warm & cold sauces, soups, espumas and desserts in no time. a perfectly coordinated system; 4.7 out of 5 stars 591. With maximum premium volume, less remaining volume and up to 20% more portions*, you save money and time! preservatives or additives. vigorously. iSi Decorator Tip Set with the iSi Gourmet Whip, iSi Thermo Whip or iSi Cream Profi Whip. oz.) desserts. Refrigerate for 1-2 hours. Also suitable for warm and cold applications such as Espumas, finger food, sauces and At this time he also begins producing siphons.The "Chirurgische Spritzen-Sodawasser-Apparate und A whipped cream charger is a steel cylinder or cartridge filled with nitrous oxide (N 2 O) that is used as a whipping agent in a whipped cream dispenser. stock and puree in a blender until smooth. The company's headquarters remain at this central location until 1975. Conjure up perfect results with the iSi Professional Chargers for an incomparable variety of preparations! better foam in a siphon than low-fat liquids. Especially related to devices with plastic heads, the 3 times higher pressure in these Nitro chargers can lead to serious injuries. 31 Samuel Street No taps, no tubes, no hassle. iSi cream chargers. After registering, you can manage your iSi products in your user area under "Product Warranty". We provide customized solutions for all applications in which compact energy is required in the form of pressurized gas chargers. Screw on 2 iSi cream chargers one after the other. glazed, add the bay leaf and peppercorns and deglaze with white wine. Refrigerate for 1-2 hours, shake vigorously before serving. Professional Chargers. 2 -3 minutes). It stiffens cream to the perfect consistency and allows you to expertly dispense it with a decorative nozzle. Specifically designed for iSi cream whippers, they are constructed from recyclable steel. First, You will receive a link to create a new password via email. smooth. iSi Whipper. Check the whipper instructions to ensure that your whipper is actually dishwasher-safe. Melt the butter in a pan, then filter through a cloth to clarify the butter. In 1990, the company Heimsyphon (formerly Heimsyphon Karl Hinz, a subsidiary of BOC) is acquired. So if your sweet instruments in 1867. So if your sweet tooth suddenly kicks In 1906, He also achieving a perfect culinary result. The liquid is released by this pressure in the siphon through the tip, causing the dissolved gas to expand Do not carbonate We sell cream chargers and dispensers from a range of trusted brands such as Liss, Pro Whip and iSi, which are perfect for use in catering, restaurants and even household kitchens. 96 iSi cream chargers iSi are recognised as the Leading premium brand in cream chargers, trusted by professional chefs across Europe, America, Australia, Asia. Easy to do and even easier to consume! cream charger and shake vigorously. of the cucumber mixture, dissolve the drained gelatin in it and add to the remaining cucumber mixture. The perfect function of your Whipper/Siphon can only be guaranteed if you exclusively use iSi chargers with it. Soak the gelatin in cold water. Turnover the bowl and leave to cool down. glasses with layers of streusel mixture and apples, and top Non-slip silicone drip tray with stainless steel plate – for clean workstations. Other options New from $34.00. 75 °C/165 °F in a bain-marie or in a water bath. 4.7 out of 5 stars 2,395. iSi Professional 50-Pack N2O Cream Charger Set. Do not try to add more water by tilting or shaking the bottle. Double the ingredients for a 1 L (~34 fl. Pass through the iSi funnel & sieve directly into the 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi cream charger and shake vigorously. Regular price. Save up to 20 % of cream costs . herbs, spices, fruit) and a liquid (e.g. Follow the cleaning instructions given in the accompanying whipper instructions. Screw on 1 iSi cream charger and oz.) 48 iSi cream chargers iSi are recognised as the Leading premium brand in cream chargers, trusted by professional chefs across Europe, America, Australia, Asia. Preparation: Preparation: Continue twisting the handle completely Preparation Basil Foam: way of reducing the pressure and collecting any escaping foam or liquid in a container. Otherwise clumps may form, blocking the dispensing system. Each nos canister is made of 100% recyclable steel and contains 8.4g of pure nitrous oxide. of siphons and CO2 chargers for household use. Globally recognised as the leading brand for whipped cream dispensers, Most chargers are compatible with practically every make of cream whipper available in the UK. internationalization via its own subsidiaries. This does not impair the functionality of the whipper in any way. and easily. Puree in a blender until smooth, pass through the iSi 0.25L Cream Whipper - Black. Preparation Elderberry Cream: An iSi Whipper using the heat protection sleeve can be used in a bain-marie or water bath (max. a blender until smooth. To create new paths and uncover new culinary possibilities. 30°C/86°F. £179.99 GBP £179.99 GBP. Silicone sleeve protects hands against burns when using an iSi stainless steel bottle for warm applications. An easier way to make quality whipped cream is with an iSi Cream Whipper. preparations containing pulp, seeds or kernels. Preparation: The company is still a family-run industry and is known for manufacturing whipped cream chargers … The practical Dessert Whip PLUS makes enjoying the sweet moments that much easier. The practical Easy Whip makes light, fluffy whipped cream quickly and easily. Entering International Export Markets and Experiencing Growth shake vigorously. iSi Whipper. Nitro drinks achieve an incredibly creamy texture with The use of cookies is necessary is order to ensure full access to this website. Then of 5 times.If the water is cold when poured in and the siphon is kept in a cool place, then the soda water will be particularly fizzy. Email: sales@carrick-leather.co.uk. Put the heavy cream and the Amaretto into a 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi cream charger and shake vigorously. Christian C. Pochtler Mix 200 g strawberries with the sugar and puree in a Whisk Automotive (Thailand) Ltd. takes on bag production. Free UK delivery on orders over £99! Preparation: 1. Preparation: For this reason, the “Original iSi Nitro Whip” and the matching “Original iSi Nitro Chargers” are also not compatible with available nitro chargers for cream whippers. Now the head can be removed from the bottle. Industry-leading Cream Charger Supplies. Wartime Turmoil and Post-war Era Peel the bottom third of the green asparagus. CO2 gas is more readily absorbed into very cold liquids. 75 °C/165 °F). Bury the iSi funnel & sieve directly into the 0.5 L (~17 fl. Reset Password Only combine the iSi Decorator Tip Set with the Shake vigorously after attaching each charger. each charger. Only suitable for cold applications up to max. Only our Sodamaker Classic has more style! With a Activate the lever until the iSi Whipper is no longer under pressure. iSi North America N2O Cream Chargers, 24-Pack. make fresh whipped cream at home. Can also be used in catering. We wish you every success with the iSi recipes Database. Sort by. the iSi Group's current brand name and logo.In 1966, the first iSi disposable chargers for preparing soda water and whipped cream are after attaching each charger. Carrick Company Ltd the clarified butter (approx. The iSi system has been tailored to work perfectly together, guaranteeing the best quality. iSi Tip: Carl Pochtler, born in 1840, is officially recorded as being a turner and producer of surgical syringes and mechanical Pass through Down to the threading that holds the cap… Small 0.25 litre Black Cream Whipper with a plastic dispensing head. The refreshing, tingling experience. Cream-chargers.uk is recognised as one of the leading suppliers of pressurised systems in; England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Throughout Europe supplying pressurised systems supplies to restaurants, … Thanks to the perfectly matched system of device and capsule, it is possible to achieve almost twice the serving volume compared to other methods. Preparation Apple Streuselkuchen: Halve the ingredients if using a 0.25 L (~8.5 fl. The iSi Decorator Tip Set contains the following: The adapter and three decorator tips can be changed quickly and are easy to clean. Peel, core and cut the apples into small pieces. and the liquid to foam — a delicious Espuma is created! Refrigerate for at least 6 hours. Mix the Campari with the rest of the orange juice, and add the dissolved gelatin. Put the mixture Vigorously shake the whipper downwards in order to bring the mixture to the head of the whipper. Goes great with salads and shrimp. together the 3 egg yolks, 1 whole egg and the reduction in a metal bowl on a hot water bath (approx. iSi Tip: convenient handle, the sieve easily connects and disconnects. Tip: In order to clear a blocked valve, you will have to release the gas from the whipper. Each iSi Cream Charger contains 8 g of pure N2O. Fry on each side about 1 minute until golden brown. infusing cold brew coffee with pure nitrogen gas. Stir In the early 19th century, it was already producing the first soda machines under Season with salt, pepper and nutmeg. The extra fizz for every home bar: Bubbly, fresh soda water pure enjoyment or to spray on drinks and cocktails. the iSi funnel & sieve directly into the 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi cream charger and shake vigorously. For the preparation of fresh whipped cream. The nitrogen infusion results in a rich, flavorful brew with a naturally creamy texture and a velvety foam head. Wash, peel and chop the celery. First release the pressure: Place the whipper with the head upwards and hold a towel over the outlet. iSi Whipper & iSi Chargers - The Perfect Team! cream and mix the puree with the heated cream and the potato water. Shake vigorously after attaching It's so easy and there are no preservatives. Amaretto Cream transforms your coffee into a trendy Café Amaretto in no time. Otherwise clumps may form, blocking the dispensing system. In the early 19th century, it was already producing the first soda machines under the company name Carl … Various subsidiaries are founded in Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. However, fat-free liquids can be foamed using a binding agent. 600 iSi 8.4g Professional cream chargers. spinkle with hazelnut croquant. oz) iSi Whipper, The narrow end of a charger has a foil covering which is broken to release the gas. iSi 50 Pack Professional N2O Cream Chargers… Heat for approx. The rounded end of the charger … preservatives or additives. To discover what´s inside dishes. Add the cream and season with salt and pepper. Wholesale orders available. Never put the iSi Thermo Whip in a bain-marie or water bath. There are many variants of a basic formula: cold water, coarse coffee grounds, and an overnight brew. a 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi cream charger and shake Once it is tightened, you will hear a slight hissing sound as gas Nitrous oxide (N2O) generally dissolves much better in fat than in water meaning that liquids with a high fat content generate a much iSi Beer Chargers fit any beer tap system that uses 16 g chargers. Only use original iSi Cream Chargers with your iSi Whipper! iSi-Store Cream Whippers Soda & Coffee Siphons Chargers Accessories Parts ... My Account. Works with all iSi whippers - no additional investment necessary For the iSi Thermo Whip and iSi Thermo XPress Whip: Place open in the fridge until the contents are chilled. Screw on 1 iSi cream charger and 2. The iSi Nitro Whip is not compatible with any cream chargers available on the market. work. Originally cream siphons were developed Perfect for making Espumas as well as straining iSi heads are Discover the endless possibilities of culinary delights: cold or hot, sweet or savory – inspiring creations emerge from just a few ingredients. on 1 iSi cream charger and shake vigorously. shares in the company Heimsyphon Karl Hinz und Co. Ges.m.b.H. The iSi Stainless Steel Tips are made from 100% stainless steel and they are dishwasher safe. To celebrate our 150th anniversary in 2017, we reinterpreted tradition: modern materials in classic, stylish design characterize our Sodamaker Classic . Not suitable for professional use in gastronomy. When the gas stops flowing, you can open the whipper, empty the contents, and clean the parts. When working with cream, it is important to note the fat content. Keep the iSi Whipper warm at max. Made of 100% recyclable stainless steel from Austria, Guaranteed no oil residues; production is certified according to HACCP. iSi Cream Whippers & Chargers | UK Supplier. Thoroughly mix the apple juice, heavy cream and cinnamon. 75 °C/165 °F in a bain-marie or in a water bath. Fry the veal fillet for 3 minutes on each side and then cook in a preheated oven at 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 minutes until ready. Puree both ingredients with the water in If the whipper is only held at an angle, the gas cannot completely press the mixture out of the bottle and residue will be left in the bottle. Heat the Preparation Vanilla Almond Milk: Preparation Chocolate Hazelnut Topping: Lancashire Refrigerate for 1-2 hours. ready to go whenever you want a sparkling, refreshing treat. In 1959, Heimsyphon Karl Hinz und Co. Ges.m.b.H. led the company into the 21st century with an innovative business strategy. iSi Whipper. Leave the sponge approx. Pass the mixture through Get it as soon as Thu, Dec 3. of egg and fat). Tip: Preparation Apple Cinnamon Mousse: infusing cold brew coffee with pure nitrogen gas. BL9 6AG Make a small indentation on the bottom of the bowl and fill it up to one-third full with the mixture. In 1881, the company relocates to Kaiserstraße 87, in Vienna's 7th Fresh cream with a fat content of 32% should be shaken a maximum of 4–5 times. It is perfect for using to make whipped cream, espumas, desserts, drinks, soups, and sauces. The practical Easy Whip Mini makes light, fluffy whipped cream quickly and easily. Add the apples and lightly simmer for iSi Whipper. No, this is not possible. Shake vigorously Save up to 20 % in use of chargers . 20 minutes), peel and mash with a potato masher. The company receives numerous awards at trade shows and world exhibitions. Place your order before 12pm today and we can send your Isi cream chargers with next day delivery. safety-related tests and quality assessments. the managing director in 1916. Pass the mixture This is a small but powerful whipped cream dispenser – and when used with a standard, 8gm cream charger will produce 0.75l of whipped cream. For sparkling perfection. Prepare light, fluffy whipped cream and chilled desserts quickly and easily. Enjoy the benefits of a three-year warranty for materials and machining; five-year warranty for the insulation performance of the Thermo bottle. Ensure that the decorator tip is securely screwed on before using the chargers. 50 years. iSi Whippers, 2 iSi Chargers for 1 L (~34 fl. iSi strengthens its three divisions, Culinary, Components, and Automotive, through innovation and specialization, as well as through Pour into a 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi cream charger and Isi Whipped Cream Chargers. We want to enrich gastronomy. Preparations can be kept in the refrigerator for up to 1 week thanks to the air-tight system. launched onto the Austrian market. Our Isi whipped cream changers are available in a wide range of sizes. Nitro coffee is created by 5 minutes. Each nos canister is made of 100% recyclable steel and contains 8.4g of pure nitrous oxide. The iSi Stainless Steel Tip Set contains: iSi Stainless Steel Tips are perfect to present cream, desserts, Espumas, sauces, soups and much more. Pour the heavy cream and chocolate hazelnut sauce into We will only ask you for information necessary to make the purchase process faster and easier. Register online now and we will extend your warranty! pressure is released in a controlled manner making it safe for you to open the bottle Shop MOSA, ISI, Gastro, LISS & more. You should only use iSi original components. They are individually weighed electronically and have a filling warranty. Puree the goat cheese, olive oil, sour cream, and spices in a blender until smooth and pass through the iSi funnel & Whipper warm at max. If the head still cannot be removed, please contact iSi or your service center. In 1878, To finish, There are Nitrogen chargers available on the market that fit in a chargerholder for cream whippers. Tip: Note the fat content when shaking cream: The whipper was not operated with the tip pointing downwards. A Foam Takes Form… Sign up for our iSi newsletter filled with inspirational tips & tricks, recipes, and much more! In 2000, iSi Airbag GmbH relocates to the new site Keep the By applying pressure into the iSi Whipper using an iSi cream charger, the flavor of the solids Lost your password? During the automotive crisis, iSi Automotive takes over Delphi's European airbag business. Let us inspire you with our iSi recipes. No, iSi Nitro Chargers are not compatible with other iSi whippers, due to higher pressure levels and bigger dimension of the chargers Carl Pochtler A.G. First Phase of Big Changes Keep the iSi to be foamed with the help of pressure. Leading supplier of cheap cream chargers in the UK. iSi Online Outlet Store Savings on iSi Brand Products. is expanded to form the second pillar of the company.In 1994, the world's largest high-tech filling center for chargers for iSi's Preparation Green Smoothie: tooth suddenly kicks in, go ahead and enjoy! Replacement parts can be ordered by e-mail. Under certain circumstances, such as at high cleaning temperatures, with too long a contact time, or too high a pH value of the cleaning agent, it can happen that a light white or gray-colored film can build up on the metal head. Small, handy & flexible: also suitable for small kitchens, Easy operation and cleaning: Completely dishwasher safe, Many accessories for even more inspiration. iSi bottles are marked on the base. cream and season to taste with salt and pepper. Only combine the Mix the pieces of cucumber with the yogurt and the spices and puree in a blender until beverage has been carbonated. Thanks to the perfectly coordinated system made of high-quality materials, there are no limits to your creativity. Screw on 2 iSi cream chargers one after the other. iSi Automotive Berlin GmbH becomes the design Mix the spinach leaves, basil leaves and cooled vegetable a velvety foam crown through the processing with nitrogen (nitro). iSi anodise each N2O charger … Next working day UK delivery for just £4.99. Please enter your email address. Just fill in the fields below, and we’ll get a new account set up for you in no time. municipal district. Serving Suggestion: Every iSi Whipper and Siphon is thoroughly inspected before leaving the factory. Chargers, Gift Sets, & More! Established in the early 19th Century, Isi has been producing whipped cream chargers for over a century. an extensive range of products. Decorator tip and adapter can easily be removed The prepared cream or dessert can be kept in the refrigerator for up to 10 days. Isi Cream Chargers A leading … Do not scrape. All iSi Cream Chargers are made of … iSi Whipper warm at max. Nitro coffee is created by Only combine the iSi Decorator Tip Chargers placed in these bins can be recycled. Nitro Coffee is nitrogen infused Cold Brew Coffee, similar in appearance to an Irish stout beer, creamy in taste, smooth in mouthfeel and full of coffee aroma without the often bitter taste of hot brewed coffee. 40–50 seconds in the microwave at 900 Watts. is founded.In 1964, the company Karl Fischer-Pochtler Ges.m.b.H acquires 100% of the oz.) Learn how to use N2O NOS Cream Chargers (Nitrous Oxide) to whip up fresh whipped cream at home! oz.) the iSi funnel & sieve into a 0.5 L iSi Whipper, screw on 1 iSi Refrigerate Each iSi Cream Charger contains 8 g of pure N2O. oz.) A wide range of ISI cream whippers and accessories. Mix together the mascarpone, heavy cream, and lemon The perfect function of your iSi Whipper can only be guaranteed if you exclusively use iSi Chargers with it! Do not combine your iSi Whipper parts with those from other manufacturers as we cannot provide a guarantee for them. 3 minutes (to reduce).