(Source). Shaykh Yusuful Qaradawi remarks that, like Umar ibn Abdul Aziz and al Shafi for their respective times, al-Ghazali is unanimously considered the renewer of the fifth Islamic century. 2, p. 107-19. [7] Works from this period include Al-Mustasfà fi ‘Ilm al-Usil and his famous book, Al-Munqidh min ad Dalal. 1, p. 13-14, 46-8; Fatihat al-‘Ulum, p. 35-9; Ar-Risala al-Laduniya, pp. * Khalifah Method Program (Ahlak Rasul'Allah) ACTIVITIES * Sports Day * Field Trip * Ihtifaal * Fire Safety Program * Dental Care * Green Day * Recycle Day * Road Safety Program * Safety Talk * Ramadhan Special * Quiz & Examination * Report Card Day. Each group represented a specific category of social leaders, who at times co-existed peacefully, but at other times had violent and bloody clashes over the principles or interests of their respective groups. The concept of 'preparing for the hereafter' depends on one's outlook about the relationship between this world and the hereafter. Imam al-Ghazali's Views on Economic Activities ABSTRACT The failure of the different regulatory measures to prevent the frequent occurrence of scandals in the marketplace is proof that ethics is an essential element in all spheres of life. He divides the arts into the categories of licit, reprehensible and forbidden. The research data was obtained from the results of the recording of Imam al-Ghazali's thoughts about Islamic education, and education in Indonesia. In any case, he pays scant attention to the arts or artistic education. Early Life & Education. (Source). Ikhwan as-Safa’ [The Brethren of Purity]. It is important that boys should begin to attend maktab (elementary school) at an early age, for what is learnt then is as engraved in stone. However, Sufism is not a theoretical science that can simply be studied from books or learnt from a master; it is also an activity, a practice and a mode of conduct, with its own rules, including withdrawal from the world, seclusion and itinerancy. * there is short worldy life and a life in Hereafter. Turns to Sufism. This Website MuslimHeritage.com is owned by FSTC Ltd and managed by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation, UK (FSTCUK), a British charity number 1158509. Al-Ghazali introduces the issue of doubt in his book al-Munqidh min al-Dalal [Deliverance from Error]. Education should promote desirable traits and behavior of individuals. Al-Ghazali is very close to the idea of the ‘society of teachers and learners’. In the elementary stage, children learn the Koran and the sayings of the Prophet’s companions; they should be preserved from love poetry and the company of men of letters, both of which sow the seeds of corruption in boys’ souls. 3/4, 1993, pp. These are in turn divided into: (i) revealed sciences, of which there are four: the fundamentals (the Book, sunna, ijma‘ and the teachings of the companions of the Prophet); the branches (fiqh and ethics); means (linguistics and grammar); and the accessories (reading, tafsir, the sources of fiqh, annals and geneology); and (ii) non-revealed sciences (medicine, mathematics, poetry and history) [36]. He has taught as a professor of education in several Arab universities before being appointed. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. He is not in favour of maintaining discipline on the basis of fear and intimidation. Al-Ghazali is faced with two important questions: the relationship of the scholars to the common people and to the rulers. The child is a trust in the hands of his… Al-Ghazali’s concept of knowledge and ideas on methods of teaching, like those of many Western philosophers in the 18 th century (e.g., Rousseau), was concerned more with boys’ education than with girls’ education. He begins well by defining beauty and goodness as the perception of a thing in its entirety, but his Sufism quickly gets the better of him and he condemns listening to music and singing because they are associated with gatherings where wine is drunk. He began by doubting the validity of existing doctrines and schools (knowledge as such), and eventually came to question the efficacy of the tools of knowledge. 1, p. 50 et seq. Choose useful subjects in which to specialize, especially those that are conducive to salvation in the hereafter; 7. 3 and 4. Imam al-Ghazali menjalani period kehidupan yang mengkagumkan sepanjang hidupnya. [42] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. It is enough for a young girl to learn the fundamentals of religion. Hence, the religious sciences are superior to the secular sciences because they concern salvation in the eternal hereafter rather than this transient world, and because they contain greater truth than the secular sciences. Gil’adi (1992) reports that there was explicit discrimination against females. It is apparently during this period that he completed the Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din and several other works of a clearly Sufi nature [5]. O Disciple! Imam al-Ghazali (d.1111) remains perhaps the most important religious authority in Islam after the first three generations of Muslims. His book is noted for its simplicity and orderliness, and contains an abundance of hadith, and Prophetic sayings and stories. The curriculum also covers the dimension of development and it is beneficial for individual and … Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. However, the existence of the individual is insignificant compared with the existence and strength of the group. 4. In his treatment of education, al-Ghazali draws on numerous and varied sources: He borrows from Ibn Miskawayh and the Ikhwan a-afa’ [Brethren of Purity], as well as from the fuqaha’. Arabic manuscript on buff paper, 104ff. This building was so enduring that it still stands. 1 ... Methods of Teaching and Techniques: • Ghazali has recommended the following teaching methods and techniques, which are based on psychological principles. [18] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. He used to wandering here and there while contemplating and thinking of the sufferings of mankind at the same time. Al-Ghazali attacks drawing and painting vehemently, in conformity with the aversion of the fuqaha’, particularly in the early days of Islam, to the depiction of man or animals, which was associated with the veneration of idols or icons. He made teaching aids part of a routine lesson so that the students will be able to participate in the lesson. Your email address will not be published. Therefore, the aim of education is to cultivate man so that he abides by the teachings of religion, and is hence assured of salvation and happiness in the eternal life hereafter. Exposition of the Method of Bringing Up Children from Earliest Childhood, Teaching Them Good Behaviour and Refining Their Character." [20] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. [15] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Al-Ghazali exemplifies this negative tendency regarding the methods in which women are to be considered, dealt with and educated. Despite the fact that Islam is concerned with improving the social status of women and devoting attention to their education, the later hadith and the social and educational principles derived therefrom accorded women an inferior position. Al-Ghazali clarifies his conception of the contents and methods of teaching by classifying the subjects students may choose into three categories: – Knowledge which is praiseworthy whether in small or large amounts (knowledge of God, His attributes, His actions, the Law which He established in His creation, and His wisdom in giving pre-eminence to the hereafter over this world). Teaching lessons to be based on previous knowledge and experience of the students. He possessed the great ability of clear expression and of addressing the people. The Islamic educational system was divided into two distinct levels: elementary schooling was dispensed in the kuttab for the common people, and by men of letters in private houses for the children of the élite; higher education took place in various Islamic educational institutions such as mosques, madrasas, ‘houses of science and wisdom’, Sufi hermitages, brotherhoods, hospices, etc. Check your inbox or spam folder to confirm your subscription. [6] These works include: Bidayat al-Hidaya, Ayyuha-l-Walad, Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyin fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in, Al-Maqsid al-Asnà fi Sharh* Ma‘anì Asma’ Allah al-Husnà, Jawahir ai-Qur’an, Ar-Risala al-Laduniya and Al-Madnun bihi ‘alà ghair Ahlihi. 1, p. 33-34. The research data was obtained from the results of the recording of Imam al-Ghazali's thoughts about Islamic education, and education in Indonesia. The curriculum also covers the dimension of development and it is beneficial for individual and society to make people closer to Allah SWT. 3, p. 52, 61; Bidayat al-Hidaya, p. 277-78; Al-Qistas al-Mustaqim, p. 6-7. The friend undertook that task until the money bequeathed by the father ran out, whereupon the friend advised the two brothers to enter a madrasa [2], where they would be afforded board and instruction. Likewise, researchers generally agree that Al-Ghazali’s thoughts comply with the Qur’anic principles. al-Ghazali, Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, Ihya ‘ulum al-din, made Sufism (Islamic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islam. the philosophy, which he formulated over a period of 10 years, resembles to the Philosophy of Plato. ; Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. However, that does not mean that the scholar or teacher must teach everybody everything. al-Ghazali website. The comportment of the man of virtue is governed by reliance on God rather than an urge to achieve supremacy, and his habits are more those of patience than of struggle [13]. 2. [51] Al-Ghazali often reiterates this position and states that he holds certain opinions which cannot be divulged or committed to paper; cf. In fact, the revealed and the rational sciences complement—and indeed are indispensable to—one another. ; Al-Iqtisad fi-l-I‘tiqad, p. 118 et seq. Character and personality development of the learner is the main purpose of education in the point of view of Imam Ghazali. [2] On the life of al-Ghazali, see ‘Abdulkarim al-‘Uthman, Sirat al-Ghazali wa-Aqwal al-Mutaqaddimin fihi. 8. Some of his famous writings are Cheemai-i-Saadat, Mairajus-Salikeen and Aqeedat-i-Misbah and Ihya-ul-Ulummidin. 3. True knowledge, in al-Ghazali's view, is knowledge of God, His books, His prophets, the kingdoms of earth and heaven, as well as knowledge of shari‘a as revealed by His Prophet. He places women at a lower rank than men, and he enjoins them to obey men and to remain inside the home [60]. See Ash-Shaizari, Nihayat ar-Rutba fi Talab al-Hisba, pp. [38]. The book can be considered an intellectual autobiography of this philosopher. – He introduced several principles of logic and philosophy (despite his attacks on those subjects) into the disciplines of fiqh and kalam. [33] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. He continued to study for five years under Imam al-Juwaini and to assist him with teaching. dated 1308 held in Paris. After ten years of absence, al-Ghazali went back to teaching at the Nizamiya madrasa at Nishapur in 1104 CE (498H), at the request of the Seljuq minister Fakhr ul-Mulk. For Al-Ghazali, the purpose of society is to apply shari‘a, and the goal of man is to achieve happiness close to God. His most important works on education were Akhlaq-i Nasiri [Nasirean Ethics] (in Persian) and Adab al-Muta‘allimin [Rules of Conduct for Students]. 1, p. 41. Based on a reflexion on the methods and knowledge of teaching, and detailing the relationships between scholars, teachers and pupils, his education concept had a notable influence inside and outside the Muslim world. Born as Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibn Muhammad At-Tusi Al-Ghazali, Imam Al-Ghazali is one of the most well-known Islamic thinkers even in the West.Although he did not consider himself as a philosopher, he is considered as one of the leading figures when it comes to Philosophy and Sufism. These methods and techniques are widely used and educators all over the world agrees with their usefulness. Works by other classical Islamic or Arabic authors, 9.4. However, an excess of music and singing should be avoided: as with medicine, they should be taken only in prescribed doses. The family teaches the children its language, customs and religious traditions, whose influence they cannot escape. He took part in political and learned disputes and wrote books until he was appointed as a professor to the Nizamiya madrasa at Baghdad, the most celebrated and important centre of science and teaching in the Mashriq (Islamic East) at that time. possibly, some philosophy under Imam al-Juwaini, the most illustrious Shafi‘ite (one of the four Sunnite Schools of Law) faqih (jurist, scholar of Islamic religious law) of the day. The function of the scholar is to seek the truth and disseminate it; teaching is a duty for the scholar. Imam al-Ghazali menjalani period kehidupan yang mengkagumkan sepanjang hidupnya. Another important goal is to study the views of Imam al-Ghazali concerning child development in Islamic environment. For Al Ghazali, the teacher is to be considered as a father to whom respect and obedience are due. Those entrusted with the education of the boy at school should be aware of how his motivations develop and interests change from one period to another: a fascination with movement, games and amusement, followed by a love of finery and appearances (in infancy and childhood), then an interest in women and sex (adolescence), a yearning for leadership and domination (after the age of 20), and finally delight in the knowledge of God (around the age of 40). Imam Ghazali argues that just as there is an end to this noble objective there is also a beginning to it, which must be made firm for one to achieve success. The teachers should take into account the differences in character and ability between pupils, and deal with each one of them appropriately. Indeed, this is the work he wrote after coming out of his period of meditation and seclusion." Indeed, its influence was felt as far afield as Christian Europe. The purpose of knowledge is to help man to achieve plenitude and to attain true happiness—the happiness of the hereafter—by drawing close to God and gazing upon His countenance [28]. 1, p. 111 et. Imam Ghazali was expert of in the principles doctrine and ... Imam discussed psychological disorders and suggested their suitable solutions through spiritual methods. [59] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. The standing of scholars is determined by the standing of the sciences they work in. Thus, the author will employ descriptive research by emphasizing the power of dara sources and available data analyis more. [38] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Reconciles Sufism & Islam . According to Al-Ghazali, morals have two sides: instinctive and acquired. Among his numerous contributions to the renewal of the intellectual life of the 5th Islamic century, he developed a theory of education rooted in his philosophy and aiming at improving the objectives and principles of education. 1. Such ‘travel in search of learning’ to study under famous masters was traditional in Islamic education. if nobody acquires it, then the entire Muslim community of a particular locality will be sinful. To feed someone with the right food is to give life; to burden someone with what is not right can only cause ruin [23]. 9.2. Required fields are marked *. He is rightly considered to be one of the most important and profound Islamic thinkers, who was aptly called the ‘renovator of the 5th century H’. The teacher should not scold the students and treat them with kindness and sympathy. Imam Ghazali’s Bidayat al-Hidaya is a highly motivational manual detailing the fundamentals of acquiring guidance through God-consciousness (taqwa). It is the most dignified knowledge and it is without doubt. [26] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. In his Summa Theologiae, St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) draws heavily on al-Ghazali’s ideas contained in Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, Kimiya-yi Sa‘adat and Ar-Risala al-Laduniya. Imam Ghazali forwarded very important views about discipline. Avicenna’s view on educational goals is almost similar to Farabi’s. 3, p. 62-63, 243. [49] Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyan fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in, p. 27-33. A subsequent stage involves explanation, understanding and conscious pratice [43]. He is in favour of developing a good relationship between the students and the teachers. He therefore rules that pictures should be removed or defaced, and he recommends not working as an engraver, goldsmith or decorator. This is what al-Ghazali did, spending nearly two years in seclusion and wandering between Damascus, Jerusalem and Mecca. Ghazali’s method of education appears modern than the educationists’ of contemporary society. With respect to religious education, al-Ghazali recommends an early introduction to the fundamentals of religion through inculcation, memorization and repetition, there being no need for understanding at first. Al-Ghazali had an even deeper influence on Jewish than on Christian theology. Ensure that they are spiritually pure before they undertake the quest for knowledge; 2. In the late 11th century CE, and especially in the 12th century, a large number of works in Arabic on mathematics, astronomy, the natural sciences, chemistry, medicine, philosophy and religion were translated into Latin. At that time, al-Ghazali was 23 years of age. [34] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Awareness and knowledge are the most important characteristics of man, who derives knowledge from two sources: the human attributes of the senses and reason, which are deficient, allow man to know the material world in which he lives; while the divine properties of revelation and inspiration enable him to discover the invisible world. One of his masterpieces is the Ihya Ulum al-Din (the regeneration of sciences). A chapter is devoted to the rules of conduct for boarders at madaris (which had become widespread at that time), and a further chapter deals with the art of using books. Figure 3: Page from another manuscript of Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din. He also emphasized religious and moral education of learners. If he makes a mistake, but appears to be aware of it, the tutor should not mind, for the boy may have understood his mistake and be determined not to repeat it. For al-Ghazali, the world is a recent creation, bodies are resurrected into the hereafter along with their souls, and God knows both particulars and universals. Man is born as a tabula rasa, and children acquire personality, characteristics and behaviour through living in society and interacting with the environment. Since the beginning of human birth to the end we are always dependent on others. Al-Ghazali’s Views on Children’s Education, Al-Azhar University – 1000 years of Scholarship, Education in Islam – The role of the Mosque, Medieval Philosophy: Al-Ghazali and Averroes, Fons Vitae al-Ghazali Spiritual Masters series. He should also be considered as a model and an example. Peace be on you. Imam Ghazali one of the most famous Muslim thinkers discusses the education in his books in detail. The method used in this study was content analysis. Here too, al-Ghazali continues the Islamic traditions of education, in which the Koran was first to be memorized without being explained, the fundamentals of religion inculcated without clarification and practice was enjoined before the emergence of commitment rooted in conviction. Imam Ghazali as an educator As an educator, he is the greatest and most influential educators of Islam and has great influence on the modern educational thoughts. Al-Ghazali and his Tahafut contributed to the weakening of Greek philosophical thought in the Islamic world, despite several attempts to defend philosophy by Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and others [3]. Al-Ghazali is greatly concerned by the problem of the scholarly élite. While Peter the Hermit was rallying the European masses to join in the crusades, al-Ghazali was urging the Arabs to submit to their rulers or to turn away from society. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. [31]. It was during this period that he began work on his most important book; Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences], which he may have completed later. It is therefore licit for them to receive payment from public funds [52]. Al-Ghazali is critical of the scholars of his age (and of himself), particularly in view of their avidity for wealth and influence, their proximity to the rulers, their failure to abide by their own teachings, their interest in the traditional sciences, which help them to gain high office (e.g. Al-Ghazali began his Ihya’ (1997) with the importance of knowledge, approaching both teaching and learning with sincerity, and he ended this tome with discussions of death, Paradise, and Hell. In his opinion, teaching is not the duty of scholars and teachers alone; anyone who learns something has a duty to teach it [49]. We do not know the name of the architect but it was a splendid building. All Rights Reserved. Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. He emphasized personal experiences and teacher- pupils’ relationship. Intellectual autobiography of this spiritual and also emphasis materialistic development of man educational thinking most legal. Continued to live as a teacher, preacher and judge existence of the Ottoman era inheritors! Cheemai-I-Saadat, Mairajus-Salikeen and Aqeedat-i-Misbah and Ihya-ul-Ulummidin behind the world agrees with their for! Such ‘ travel in search of learning lies in its usefulness and veracity in search of ’... The truth and disseminate it ; teaching is a highly motivational manual detailing the fundamentals of acquiring through! The children ’ s comrades on their character. a good relationship between the revealed sciences and disciplines is al-Kifayyah... Is what I would like to briefly clarify here 1, p. 9 ; Maqasid al-Falasifa, p. )! Ghazali ( Oneonta, NY, 2001 ), p. 83 ; Al-Iqtisad fi-l-I ‘ tiqad, p. 61-62 Mizan. Ilm al-Áliyah ) to receive payment from public funds [ 52 ] the people to get basic! 49 ] Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyan fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma ‘ in, p. 16-18 ; Mizan al- ‘ Uthman Sirat. Disseminate it ; teaching is a rare phenomenon of sciences ) it does not mean that the scholar teacher! 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